Wednesday, June 6, 2012

Current Projects

Self-presentation on Facebook: A picture is worth a thousand words 
Investigators: Elizabeth A. Daniels and Eileen L. Zurbriggen

Eighty percent of US teens use a social networking site and 87% percent of internet users between 18 and 29 years of age engage in social networking (Lenhart, Madden, Smith, Purcell, Zickuhr, & Rainie, 2011).  Facebook is currently one of the most popular social networking sites in the world with over 845 million active members including a large number of young people in the US (Facebook, February 6, 2012).  Despite youths’ heavy engagement with social networking sites, there is a relatively modest body of literature on the role of Facebook in young people’s lives.  Further, the majority of the existing research has used college student samples; relatively few studies have used teen samples.  Accordingly, there is much to be learned about the function of Facebook in psychological development across adolescence and emerging adulthood.  In this study, we are examining how teen girls and young woman portray themselves on their Facebook profile and how they evaluate other young women.

Let’s trade sexy for smart: What teens think of today’s media fare
Investigator: Elizabeth A. Daniels and Aurora M. Sherman

Events like Lindsay Lohan’s arrests, Tiger Wood’s infidelity and Kim Kardashian’s marital break-up dominate media headlines. Bling, beauty, and sex are big.  In this study, teens were asked what they think about this media fare and how the media landscape could look different in their eyes.  In addition, they were presented with alternative media images of accomplished females including a CEO, military pilot, and athlete.  In the present study, I am examining teens' attitudes toward these images.

Sex Object, Athletes, Sexy Athletes: Media Images of Women Athletes
Investigator: Elizabeth A. Daniels

Media images play a key role in shaping and reinforcing societal standards of beauty. In general, media is full of idealized images of women and a strong focus on the need to change women’s bodies. A large body of psychological research has documented the negative effects of this media on females (e.g., American Psychological Association Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls, 2007). In contrast, we know little about how positive imagery impacts female viewers. Depictions of women engaged in sport suggest that women can be powerful and strong. Their bodies are, therefore, not for display but rather they are instrumental. However, women athletes are routinely sexualized in media. In this study, I examine the impact of sexualized versus performance-focused images of women athletes on adolescent girls and young women. I also investigate boys' and men's attitudes toward women after viewing these different images.

Images of Women Athletes: Do They Exist in Magazines Adolescent Girls Read?
Investigator: Elizabeth A. Daniels & Linda Porzelius

Media generally portrays narrow and stereotypical representations of women and femininity that transmit unrealistic standards for physical appearance. In contrast to media focused on women’s physical appearance and body shape, some media portray women as active and athletic. We know little about how common such images are in popular teen magazines. Images of women athletes that center on their athleticism may counter pervasive media portrayals of women as sexual objects. In this study, I investigate the prevalence of images of physically active women in magazines popular among adolescent girls.

Sexual Objectification in the Workplace 
Investigators: David Frederick, Andrea Niles, Elizabeth A. Daniels, and Janet Lever 

This project looks at the women's feelings of being sexually objectified in the workplace. Most of the current research on objectification looks at individuals' tendency to self-objectify, i.e., evaluating oneself from a 3rd-party perspective. In this study, we are shifting the focus to examine individuals' perceptions that others are objectifying them. Further, we are examining this phenomenon in the workplace which is an important context in the lives of most adults.
Promoting Positive Body Image among Girls
Investigator: Elizabeth A. Daniels, Amy Ford, and John Edwards

Dissatisfaction with one’s body is prevalent among females; in many Western contexts it is considered a normative perception (Murnen, 2011). A large body of research has documented a wide range of negative outcomes associated with body dissatisfaction including low self-esteem, depression, and eating disorders (Stice, 2002; Stice & Shaw, 2002). Thus, poor body image is a significant mental health risk for females and an important arena for intervention research. This intervention study assessed whether involvement in an 8-week yoga series over the summer positively impacted pre-adolescent girls' body perceptions.

Youth Development in Sports and Physical Activities
Investigator: Elizabeth A. Daniels

In the present study, I examine young adults’ retrospective accounts of their important experiences in physical activities during childhood and adolescence, and investigate their current levels of physical activity. The goal is better understand how experiences in physical activities are related to subsequent activity involvement.

Looking Back: The Effects of High School Activity Involvement
Investigators: Tara K. Scanlan, Elizabeth A. Daniels, Kimberly B. Kahn, & Larry Scanlan

Youth involvement in organized activities is linked with positive development. However to date, little is known about the underlying mechanisms between activity involvement and particular outcomes, such as academic achievement. For example, we do not know why youth who are involved in organized activities do better in school than their non-involved peers. The main goal of this project is to investigate potential mechanisms in the form of personal qualities, defined as characteristics, traits, skills, or abilities, that individuals reported developing, nurturing, or reinforcing in high school organized activities. A related goal is detailing with a micro-level lens the specific pathways through which individuals develop, nurture, or reinforce personal qualities in activity contexts. Lastly, the final goal is to investigate the consequences of activity involvement across the lifespan. This project involves a unique cohort adult women who played interscholastic sports pre-Title IX. These women, now in their 50s, were also highly involved in a range of other extracurricular activities. They were interviewed about the relationships between their life accomplishments, personal qualities, and high school activities.

Monday, May 28, 2012

Media Coverage


  • 2013, August 13. Interview on Huffpost Live. “Sports Key to Women’s Success.”
  • 2013, June 29. Interview on Global Debate WISDOM, National Broadcast Corporation in Japan. “For women to have it all.”
  • 2012, December 3. Interview on myWindow with Kristi Miller.
  • 2012, February 9. Interview on Good Morning Central Oregon.
  • Belmonte, K. “Research blog: Sexualized female athletes & the impact on young women.” July 15, 2013.
  • Houtman, N. “Sex in play: From dolls to sports, sexualized culture affects youth.” Terra magazine. January 23rd, 2013.
  • DuBois, S. “Sex, muscles and basketball: How do you sell a woman?” Fortune Magazine/CNN Money. August 28, 2012.
  • Central Oregon Family News. “Raising healthy girls, part I.”  Local Views and Events. June 2012.
  • Central Oregon Family News. “Raising healthy girls, part II.”  Local Views and Events. July/August, 2012.
  • Freakonomics. “The consequences of athletes in bikinis.” March 30, 2012.
  • Jarrett, C. “How do girls and women feel when they see sexualised or sporty images of female athletes.” The British Psychological Society’s Research Digest. March 29, 2012.
  • Shewmaker, J. “Protect this house: Who will? Females as objects vs agents.” April 4, 2011.
  • McNeill, E. “Research shows positive media images do a world of good.” Marketing, media, and childhood. November 1, 2010.

Thursday, June 21, 2007


* = Undergraduate co-author

Daniels, E. A. & Gillen, M. M. (in press). Identity and body image: A call for new research. In K. McLean & M. Syed (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Identity Development. Oxford University Press.

Schooler, D., & Daniels, E. A. (in press). “I am not a skinny toothpick and proud of it:” Latina adolescents’ ethnic identity and responses to mainstream media images. Body Image.

Daniels, E. A., & LaVoi, N. M. (2013). Athletics as solution and problem: Sports participation for girls and the sexualization of women athletes. In E. L. Zurbriggen & T.-A. Roberts (Eds.), The sexualization of girls and girlhood: Causes, consequences, and resistance (63-83). New York: Oxford University Press.

Daniels, E. A. (2012). Sexy versus strong: What girls and women think of female athletes. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 33, 79-90.

Frederick, D. A., Jafary, A. M., Gruys, K., & Daniels, E. A. (2012). Surveys and the epidemiology of
body image dissatisfaction. In T. F. Cash (Ed), Encyclopedia of body image and human
appearance (pp. 766-773). San Diego: Academic Press.

Daniels, E. A., & *Wartena, H. (2011). Athlete or sex symbol: What boys and men think of
media representations of female athletes. Sex Roles, 65, 566-579.

Daniels, E. A., & Leaper, C. (2011). Gender issues. In B. B. Brown & M. J. Prinstein (Eds.), Encyclopedia of adolescence (Vol. 1, pp. 151-159). San Diego: Academic Press. (The Encyclopedia is recipient of the 2011 PROSE award for the best multivolume reference in humanities or social science.)

Daniels, E. A., *Niles, A., & Frederick, D. (2010). Sports. Sex and society. Marshall Cavendish Digital.

Daniels, E. A. (2009). Sex objects, athletes, and sexy athletes: How media representations of women athletes can impact adolescent girls and young women. Journal of Adolescent Research, 24, 399-422. (Most downloaded article of those published in JAR in 2009 and 2010.)

Daniels, E. A. (2009). The invisibility of women athletes in magazines for teen girls. Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal, 18, 14-24.

Daniels, E. A., & Scanlan, T. K. (2007). A new collaborative interview method to test and expand psychological theory. International Society for the Study of Behavioural Development Newsletter, 2, 21-23.

Daniels, E., & Leaper, C. (2006). The relationship between sport participation and global self-esteem among adolescents. Sex Roles, 55, 875-880.

Daniels, E., Sincharoen, S., & Leaper, C. (2005). The relation between sport orientations and athletic identity among adolescent girl and boy athletes. Journal of Sport Behavior, 28, 315-332.

Articles Under Review

Daniels, E. A., & Zurbriggen, E. L. (under revision). The price of sexy: Viewers’ perceptions of a
sexualized versus non-sexualized Facebook profile photograph.

Articles in Preparation

Daniels, E. A., & Zurbriggen, E. L. Sexualization on Facebook: Why do girls post sexy profile photos?

Daniels, E. A., & Sherman, A. M. Women in appearance-based vs. non-appearance-based
professions: Whom do teens evaluate more positively?

Daniels, E. A., & Porzelius, L. Gendered messages in preteen and teen girl magazines.

Daniels, E. A. What girls take off the field: Late adolescent women's important memories of involvement in physical activities.

Scanlan, T. K., Daniels, E. A., Kahn, K., Stellino, M., & Scanlan, L. High school involvement in organized activities: Underlying mechanisms and lifespan consequences.

Frederick, D., Niles, A., Daniels, E. A., Elssesser, K., & Lever, J. Sexual objectification in the workplace.